I understand what you are saying about aspects - and them being more reliable. In comparison to house placements (esp. with an off time), that may even be the case. However, I am saying that sign placements is equally important, and sign placements do not get affected (except perhaps with Moon though) even with an incorrect time of birth. As to the importance of sign placements, already explained in a previous post.
Thanks for posting your chart. Feel free to not respond to any statement or question. What is the deal with your dad? Although the Sun is well situated in Leo, it has a close square to Saturn as well as to the outers. The mother is the more grounded and sensible of the two, but has had a hard life. The Moon is not a happy one in Virgo and also suffering in the 8th house. It's an earth Moon and its trine to earthy Saturn shows she longs or longed to create a stable and secure household/family life, but lives with the feeling, even guilt that that is not the case.
Not sure what you are up to studies wise and too lazy to go dig into your posts, but you should be ready to put in a fair bit of extra effort when it comes to making your career. The ruler of your career house, Mars, is in its fall (weak) in Cancer. However, it will get some help from Venus and Jupiter. However, the help is weak due to the wide orb with Jup., so it will take time and struggle for you to settle down. There might be some help involved from the partner - when the time comes. And, by this I don't mean just packing your lunch for you to take along, or get your shirts laundered, but actively helping out. It could be your own partner or someone that actually helps you stabilise your career and feels like one (Mars-Venus conj. in 7th). It could also be someone from the family given Venus rules your fourth house. Keep an open mind (I will too) and respond honestly, so that both of us can learn from each other.