July 3, 1962, 10:38 am CET, Algiers, Algeria (36n47, 3e03)
Source: "In a proclamation published at 10:38 am, General de Gaulle announced the birth of the new nation." The New York Herald Tribune, July 4, 1962; cited by Campion, "Book of World Horoscopes,"
1795, Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
1815, Mar 2, To put an end to robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declared war on Algiers.
1815, Jun 30, US naval hero Stephen Decatur ended attacks by Algerian pirates. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
1815, Aug 5, A peace treaty with Tripoli—which followed treaties with Algeria and Tunis—brought an end to the Barbary Wars.
1816, Aug 27, Lord Exmouth bombed Algiers, a refuge for Barbary pirates.
1830, Jul 5, The French occupied the North African city of Algiers.
1836, Jul 6, French General Thomas Bugeaud defeated Abd al-Kader's forces beside the Sikkak River in Algeria.
1848, Delacroix painted “Women of Algiers in Their Apartment.”
1909, Nov 15, M. Metrot took off in a Voisin bi-plane from Algiers, making the first manned flight in Africa.
1913, Nov 7, Albert Camus (d.1960), French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist was born in Mondovi, Algeria. He is best known for his book "The Stranger."
1919, Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian statesman, was born. He served as premier from 1962-1965.
1936, Yves St. Laurent, fashion designer, was born in Oran, Algeria.
1940, Jul 4, British destroyed French battle fleet at Oran, Algeria, 1267 died.
1941, Jul 3, Liamine Zeroual was born.
1942, Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers.
1942, Oct 21, Eight American and British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
1942, Oct 23, The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads, Virginia. The command of the Western Task Force, part of an invasion of North Africa during World War II known as Operation Torch, was given to General George Patton. Placed under the command of General George Patton, the Western Task Force had the advantage of having a man at the top who would stop at nothing to see that the mission was accomplished, a quality that would be needed in the days ahead. Naval operations were in the hands of Rear Adm. H. Kent Hewitt, an easygoing man who, in the beginning, found it difficult to work with Patton, but with increasing familiarity became a solid partner.
1942, Nov 8, Operation Torch began during World War II as U.S. and British forces landed in French North Africa. Gen’l. Eisenhower landed with American troops in Algiers, Casablanca.
1942, Nov 10, Admiral Jean Darlan ordered French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to the Anglo-American forces. Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers in 1942.
1942, Nov 13, Lt Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower flew to Algeria to conclude an agreement with French Admiral Jean Darlan. The Admiral was assassinated soon after.
1942, Nov 14, Last Vichy French troops in Algeria surrendered.
1942, Dec 24, Jean LXF Darlan, French admiral and leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was murdered by Gaullists in Algiers.
1943, May 29, Churchill, Marshall and Eisenhower met in the Confederacy of Algiers.
1944, Mar 15, In Algiers, the provisional government merged the Office Français d'Information and France-Afrique, thus forming Agence Française de Presse (AFP).
1945, May 8, Algerian demonstrators in the town of Setif unfurled an Algerian flag, banned by the French occupiers. As police began confiscating the flags, the crowds turned on the French, killing about two dozen of them. This led to an uprising in which Algerians say some 45,000 people may have died. Figures in France put the number at about 15,000 to 20,000. No one is quite sure.
1951, Nov 1, The Algerian National Liberation Front began guerrilla warfare against the French.
1954, Sep 10, A 12 second earthquake killed 1,460 in Orleansville, Algeria.
1954, Oct 31, The Algerian Revolution (1954-1962) against the French began. Algerian Muslims of the Front de Libération National (FLN), began open warfare against French rule in Algeria.
1954, Nov 1, The western African nation of Algeria began its rebellion against French rule.
1954, Nov 24, France sent 20,000 soldiers to Algeria.
1955, Aug 20, Hundreds of people were killed in anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria.
1956, Mar 27, French commandos landed in Algeria.
1956, Apr 11, French government sent 200,000 reservists to Algeria.
1956, May 10, French government sent 50,000 reservists to Algeria.
1956, May 27, The French staged a raid in Algiers.
1956, Jun 22, The battle for Algiers began as three buildings in Casbah were blown up.
1956, Oct 22, France intercepted a Moroccan plane and arrested Ben Bella, an Algerian statesman.
1956, Gen. Jacques Massu (d.2002 at 94) took command of the French 10th Parachute Division, the elite force tasked with maintaining order in Algeria.
1957, Jan, France began sending troops to Algeria to crush the rebel movement in what came to be called "The Battle for Algiers."
1958, May 13, French troops took control of Algiers as French settlers rioted against the French army.
1958, Jun 4, French premier De Gaulle arrived in Algiers.
1958, Jun 6, Premier Charles de Gaulle said Algeria will always be French.
1958, Oct 23, De Gaulle offered Algerian defiance "peace of the brave."
1959, Apr 12, France Observator reported torture practice by French army in Algeria.
1961, Apr 21, The French army revolted in Algeria.
1961, Apr 22, An uprising of French parachutists was led by Gen. Salan/Challe in Algeria.
1961, Apr 26, French paratroopers' revolt was suppressed in Algeria.
1962, Feb 5, French President Charles De Gaulle called for Algeria's independence.
1962, Feb 18, France & Algerian Moslems negotiated a truce to end 7 year war.
1962, Mar 18, France and Algerian rebels agreed to a truce.
1962, Mar 19, Relative calm returned to Algeria after cease-fire, ending 7 years of warfare between French and Algerian Nationalists.
1962, Apr 20, The Secret Army Organization (OAS) leader and ex-general Salan was arrested in Algiers.
1962, May 2, OAS (Secret Army Organization) struck in Algeria.
1962, May 23, OAS leader general Raoul Salan was sentenced to life. French general Raoul Salan led a failed army revolt in Algeria (July, 1960) and then fled abroad, continuing to direct increasing terrorist Secret Army Organization (OAS) attacks on the French and Algerian governments, turning the Algerian War of Independence into a three-way war in Algeria and a right-wing guerrilla insurrection in France.
1962, Jul 1, Some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence. The vote was nearly unanimous. De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on July 3. The Provisional Executive, however, proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence.
1962, Jul 3, French Pres. Charles De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country following the July 1 elections. De Gaulle evacuated Algeria and a million settlers flooded into France.
1962, Jul 5, Algeria’s Provisional Executive proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence. French Pres. Charles De Gaulle had pronounced Algeria an independent country on Jul 3 following the July 1 elections. A massacre in Oran, Algeria, left 96 dead.
1962, A gas fire in Algeria called “The Devil’s Cigarette Lighter” had burned for 6 months until it was put out by Texas firefighter Red Adair (1915-2004).
1963, Mar 19, Algeria demanded that France negotiate on ending nuclear testing in Algerian Sahara.
1964, Jun 15, The last French troops left Algeria.
1965, Jun 19, Col. Houari Boumedienne (1932-1978) overthrew Pres. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria's first civilian president. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was Boumedienne's right-hand man.
1971, Feb 24, Algeria nationalized French oil companies.
1973, Nov 28, Arab League summit in Algiers recognized Palestine.
1975, The Algerian film "Chronicle of the Years of Embers" was produced.
1980, Oct 10, Some 4,500 died when a pair of earthquakes struck NW Algeria.
1980, Berber anti-government sentiment was mobilized in the "Tamazight Spring" uprising.
1984, Jul 3, Raoul Salan (85), French general, OAS leader (Algeria), died.
1988, Oct, Berber riots left hundreds dead in the "Black October" riots.
1988, Nov 12, The Palestine National Council, the legislative body of the PLO, opened a four-day meeting in Algiers, during which delegates proclaimed an independent Palestinian state.
1992, Jan 11, The president of Algeria (Chadli Bendjedid) resigned, two weeks after Muslim fundamentalists had defeated his ruling party in legislative elections.
1992, Feb 9, The government of Algeria declared a state of emergency to quell spreading Muslim fundamentalist unrest.
1994, Dec 26, French commandos stormed a hijacked Air France jetliner on the ground in Marseilles, killing four Algerian hijackers and freeing 170 hostages. The Air France plane was hijacked by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria Dec 24.
1994, Dec 27, Four Roman Catholic priests—three French and a Belgian—were shot to death in their rectory in Algiers, a day after French commandos killed four radicals who had hijacked an Air France jet from Algiers to Marseille.
1995, Aug 20, The Algerian government planned presidential elections for Nov. 16, but Muslim militants vowed to derail the plans. Some 40,000 people have been killed since the government cancelled elections in 1992.
1995, French subway train bombings left 8 people dead. In 1999 five people linked to Algerian militants were sentenced to 10-year prison terms for the attacks. 16 others received lesser sentences. In 2002 Boualem Bensaid and Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, Islamic militants, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombings.
1995, More than 3,000 people died this year in fighting between the government and Islamic fundamentalists.
1996, May 23, The Armed Islamic Group said that it had killed seven French Trappist monks who were kidnapped two months ago from the Notre Dame de l’Atlas monastery at Tibhirine near Medea on Mar 27. In 2002 John W. Kister authored "The Monks of Tibhirine."
1996, May 30, Former arch-bishop of Algiers, Cardinal Leon-Etienne Duval, died in Paris. He was one of the first French public figures to recognize Algeria’s right to independence.
1996, Jul 15, An Algerian court sentenced 128 Muslim militants to death in absentia for their involvement in guerilla activities. Another 67 were sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment.
1996, Oct 22, A new constitution was drafted that would ban Islamic militants from seeking power. It was to be put up for referendum on Nov. 28.
1997, Jun 5, Algeria scheduled Parliamentary elections. In a 65% turnout pro-government forces took the largest share of votes. Two Islamist parties picked up 1/4th of the parliament seats. Monitors were not allowed to inspect some 5,000 portable voting booths.
1997, Oct 23, Algeria held local elections. The government claimed a 66% turnout. The winners will choose 2/3 of the members of the upper house of parliament. Pres. Zeroual will choose the other third. Opposition parties charged that the turnout was greatly inflated and that some poll watchers were roughed up and stopped from observing the tally.
1997, Oct 27, In Algeria some 15,000 supporters of the Socialist Forces Front marched to protest fraud in the elections.
1998, Jul 5, Algeria celebrated independence and put into effect a new law
making Arabic the country’s sole official language. The Berber minority
struggled to have the government recognize their own language,
(SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A18)
1998, Sep 16, Algeria was rebuked for abuses by its security forces by a UN report. Amnesty Int’l. called the report a whitewash.
1998, Oct 4, US and Algerian navies conducted a small joint search-and-rescue exercise in the Mediterranean.
1998, Oct 30, The UN extended its 460-member peacekeeping force in the Western Sahara over land contested between Morocco and the Algerian-based Polisario Front.
1999, Apr 14, In Algeria 6 of the 7 presidential candidates withdrew to protest fraud in the early stages of voting. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the remaining candidate, was backed by the generals who have ruled since 1962. The vote was meant to end the civil war that has killed 75,000 people since 1992.
1999, Apr 15, Algeria held elections. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was left alone in
the race after 6 competitors withdrew over allegations that the vote was rigged.
A 60% turnout was reported. Bouteflika said he would turn down the post without
a massive turnout and a large majority support.
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