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#1
12-09-2009, 02:41 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
gaussian-distributions

gaussian-distributions

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 12:22 PM. Reason: TITLE
#2
12-09-2009, 02:47 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions
The normal distribution was first introduced by Abraham de Moivre in an article in 1733, [3] which was reprinted in the second edition of his “The Doctrine of Chances” (1738) in the context of approximating certain binomial distributions for large n. His result was extended by Laplace in his book “Analytical theory of probabilities” (1812), and is now called the theorem of de Moivre–Laplace.
Laplace used the normal distribution in the analysis of errors of experiments. The important method of least squares was introduced by Legendre in 1805. Gauss, who claimed to have used the method since 1794, justified it rigorously in 1809 by assuming a normal distribution of the errors.
Since its introduction, the normal distribution has been known by many different names: the law of error, the law of facility of errors, Laplace’s second law, Gaussian law, etc. Curiously, it has never been known under the name of its inventor, de Moivre. The name “normal distribution” was coined independently by Peirce, Galton and Lexis around 1875; the term was derived from the fact that this distribution was seen as typical, common, normal. This name “normal distribution” was popularized in statistical community by Karl Pearson around the turn of the 20th century.
The term “standard normal” which denotes the normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance came into general use around 1950s, appearing in the popular textbooks by P.G. Hoel (1947) “Introduction to mathematical statistics” and A.M. Mood (1950) “Introduction to the theory of statistics”

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:21 AM.
#3
12-09-2009, 02:57 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:14 AM.
#4
12-09-2009, 02:59 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions
In its simplest form, normal distribution can be described by the probability density function
which is known
as the standard normal distribution. The constant
in this expression ensures that the total area under the curve ϕ(x) is equal to unity,[proof] and ½ in the exponent makes the “width” of the curve (measured as half-distance between the inflection points of the curve) also equal to one. It is traditional[6] in statistics to denote this function with the greek letter ϕ, whereas density functions for all other distributions are usually denoted with letters ƒ or p.
Standard normal distribution is centered around point x = 0, and has the “width” of the curve equal to 1. More generally, a normal distribution has arbitrary center μ, and variance σ2. The probability density function for such distribution is given by the formula

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:24 AM.
#5
12-09-2009, 03:05 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

Parameter μ is called the mean, and it determines the location of the peak of the density function. Point x = μ is at the same time the mean, the median and the mode of normal distribution. Parameter σ2 is called the variance, and it affects how concentrated the random variable is around its mean. The square root of σ2 is called the standard deviation and it determines the width of the density function.
Some authors[7] instead of σ2 use its reciprocal τ = σ−2, which is called the precision. This parameterization has an advantage in numerical applications where σ2 is very close to zero and is more convenient to work with in analysis as τ is a natural parameter of the normal distribution. Another advantage of using this parameterization is in the study of conditional distributions in multivariate normal case.
In this article we assume that σ is strictly greater than zero. While it is certainly useful for certain limit theorems (e.g. asymptotic normality of estimators) and for the theory of Gaussian processes to consider the probability distribution concentrated at μ (see Dirac measure) as a normal distribution with mean μ and variance σ2 = 0, this degenerate case is often excluded from the considerations because no density with respect to the Lebesgue measure exists without the use of generalized functions.
Normal distribution is denoted as N(μ, σ2). Oftentimes the letter N is written in calligraphic font (typed as \mathcal{N} in LaTeX). Thus when a random variable X is distributed normally with mean μ and variance σ2, we write

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:25 AM.
#6
12-09-2009, 03:12 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

In the definition section we defined the normal distribution by specifying its probability density function.
However this is just one of the possible ways to characterize a probability distribution.
Other ways include the cumulative distribution function, the moments, the cumulants, the characteristic function, the moment-generating function, etc.

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:26 AM.
#7
12-09-2009, 03:32 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions
FRANCE: Ligue 1
19:00
Lille St. Etienne -
1.67 3.81 6.83

-2.50e-3 8.30e-3

WINNER St. Etienne THE UNDERDOG

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:29 AM.
#8
12-09-2009, 03:38 AM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions
FRANCE: Ligue 1
19:00 Toulouse Sochaux -
1.86 3.49 5.50
6.10e-3 ///6.40e-3
DRAW

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:31 AM.
#9
12-09-2009, 03:08 PM
 Bulletbobb Senior Member Join Date: Oct 2007 Posts: 179
Re: Champions League

Sela:

So where do these numbers come from? What do they mean?
Tell us how you arrive at them.
We don't care about your selections, but we would like to know how you arrive at them

Bob
#10
12-09-2009, 03:50 PM
 sela Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 181
Re: Champions League

gaussian-distributions

Last edited by sela; 12-10-2009 at 02:17 AM.
#11
04-20-2010, 03:23 PM
 James21R Banned Join Date: Mar 2010 Posts: 10
Re: Champions League

Barcelona - Inter today,any opinions for the result? Who wins?
#12
05-02-2010, 02:38 AM
 balarama98 Junior Member Join Date: May 2010 Posts: 1
Re: Champions League

Quote:
 Originally Posted by James21R Barcelona - Inter today,any opinions for the result? Who wins?
can we predict world cup cricket results?
someone advice me pl
balaram akkineni
#13
05-21-2010, 11:10 PM
 James21R Banned Join Date: Mar 2010 Posts: 10
Re: Champions League

Is there anybody who can give a prediction for the final?
#14
09-16-2010, 12:16 AM
 Olamarkjoel Junior Member Join Date: Sep 2010 Posts: 1
Re: Champions League

Please kindly help me predict the outcome of these matches As Monaco Vs Toulouse, Saint Etienne vs montpellier, PSG vs stade Rennes match coming up on 18 sep 2010

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