Re: chinese fortune telling
I would think both are study of patterns/statistics based on what were observed/observable with reference to something (a certain day, a certain sign, a certain time, a certain astrological layout).
There are different methods of Chinese fortune telling:
Ziwei - similar with western astrology in that it maps a person based on time and place of birth to an astrological pattern. For western, it is referenced to real stars, while Chinese is referenced to some hypothetical symbolic stars. They both use house analysis of 12 houses and there are angular houses/core houses etc. Western astro requires more accurate birthtime, while Chinese astro usually requires only up to within a 2hr timeframe
Bazi (or literally translated to eight-words) - They are arranged in groups of 2characters x 4 groups. First character is one of the 5 elements of metal, wood, water, fire, earth, each having a male version and a female version (ie 10 different characters to permutate from). The 2nd character is one of the 12 animals of the year permutating in fixed order (each animal will have one or more elements related to it). As such, there are 60 combinations for each 2-character group. The first group is the year, the 2nd the month, the third is the day and the 4th is the time (in 2hr slots). From the combination of these 4 groups and their relationship to the 2-char group representing each year/mth/day etc, we can interpret the natal pattern (the 8 characters) and the fortune (natal relationship with the year/mth/day)
i-ching - it is a classic in philisophy, but in the context of fortune telling, it is used mainly for horary readings